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Statistics and Research: Southeast Asia

Violence and Exposure to HIV Among Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia By Carol Jenkins, the Cambodian Prostitutes' Union, Women's Network for Unity and Candice Sainsbury. Produced for review by the United States Agency for International Development, March 2006. Courtesy NSWP



Abstracts from Eldis

Declining HIV prevalence gives hope in Cambodia (pdf)

Social marketing to tackle AIDS: targeted condom promotion leads to declining HIV in Cambodia

Authors: ; PSI
Publisher: Population Services International , 2004

This article by Population Services International (PSI) charts the significant decrease in HIV prevalence in Cambodia between 1998 and 2002, and outlines the key role that targeted condom promotion has played in this decline. Specifically, PSIs social marketing of condoms is discussed, including a variety of strategies used to target both high and low risk groups. Whilst overall HIV prevalence has dropped, the decrease has been greatest among brothel-based commercial sex workers (CSWs) and other high risk groups. Condom use has also increased dramatically among these groups, however remains low outside brothels, particularly in marital and "sweetheart" relationships.

The article concludes that these changes are largely attributable to the Cambodian government’s 100% condom use policy in the sex industry, combined with PSIs strategic social marketing of condoms. Whilst the changes do not signal the end of the epidemic in Cambodia, they do demonstrate the significant and wide-reaching impact that well-targeted condom promotion can have on HIV prevalence. Given this impact, the article recommends that social marketing as a means of HIV prevention be scaled up in both low and high prevalence countries.

Self-esteem matters: condom use by Thai sex workers

Self-esteem matters: condom use by Thai sex workers

Authors: Nicholas Ford; Suporn Koetsawang; University of Exeter
Publisher: id21 Development Research Reporting Service, 2002

Thailand's sex industry is of core importance for the country's serious HIV problem. There is a strong male tradition of using commercial sex workers (CSW) before and during marriage. What are the psychosocial factors that affect the use of condoms by CSW? How can interventions increase the rate of condom use?

MAP report 2005: male to male sex and HIV/AIDS in Asia (pdf)

Male-male sex cannot be ignored in Asia

Authors: ; MAP Network
Publisher: Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic Network, 2005

This publication, from the Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic (MAP) Network, reviews the situation of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Asia. The report summarises the key findings about the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among Asian MSM and discusses the programmatic implications of these findings. Key findings show that in 2003, 17 per cent of MSM in Bangkok, Thailand were HIV positive. By 2000, 15 per cent of MSM in Phnom Penh, Cambodia tested positive for HIV. The prevalence of HIV among transgender sex workers in Jakarta, Indonesia increased from 6 per cent in 1997 to 22 per cent in 2002. While these findings represent the most at risk segment of the MSM population, they give cause for alarm in Asian countries that continue to neglect MSM prevention, care, support and treatment.

The report highlights four areas that programme managers addressing male-male sex need to consider. These include increasing condom use in male-male sex, and introducing prevention methods to those engaging in high-risk activities, such as men and transgendered people who sell sex to men. Managers also need to consider issues of drug use and men who have sex with men and women. [adapted from author]

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